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Rabu, 11 Agustus 2010

Sumba's Culture (English Version of "Budaya Sumba")

Sumba @ Awang Praing.Blogs

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Indonesia as a state that is united, sovereign, just and prosperous as stated in the Preamble to the Constitution in 1945 to the second paragraph, has many ethnicities, races, cultures, religions, ethnicities, and languages united under the Unitary State of Indonesia (NKRI).
Every region in Indonesia has a cultural, historical, racial, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics. One of the areas in Indonesia which is located in the province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) and has a unique cultural anthropological ie Sumba Island. The island is divided into four districts, namely:
    • East Sumba, the capital Waingapu
    • West Sumba, the capital Waikabubak
    • Central Sumba, the capital Waibakul
    • Southwestern Sumba, the capital Waitabula
From the above four districts, Southwestern Sumba and Central Sumba are two new districts in 2007 bloomed year ago. Although separated in four districts but their culture and language are divided into two parts, namely:
    • Culture and language KL (Region East Sumba Sumba and a small portion of Central)
    • Culture and language of West Sumba (Region West Sumba, Sumba Barat Daya, and most of Central Sumba)
Therefore, the authors would like to discuss about cultural anthropology and tribal Sumba.
2.1. Geographic portrait of the Sumba Island.
Sumba Island is an Indonesian island in the middle of the incoming group of Nusa Tenggara Islands and is part of NTT.
Sumba island has a geographical boundary as follows:
    • Bordering the straits north of Sumba
    • South by the Indonesian Ocean
    • Bordering the East Sea Savu
    • West by NTB
Location of Sumba island is astronomically 119 LS - 120 LS and 9 BT-10 BT. Sumba Island itself is divided into four districts. Sumba Island in isolation, has the potential of natural resources and adequate human resources. Dr.Robert Lawang  a sociologist stating that Sumba is a source of social energy-positive. What is meant by social-positive source of energy is a resource that includes the small islands, rich in minerals and marine fishes, the extensive planting of land, horses and cows and cattle that meet wilderness and human community includes a tough and skilled. One of the SDA from Sumba in agriculture who endorsed the Government of Indonesia as the national seeds are nuts Sumba (a bean varieties that exist only on the island of Sumba and the nut low cholesterol and high nutritious). While tourism is not so well-known domestic tourists but is very well known by foreign tourists are:
    • Tarimbang Beach (big waves and the beach suitable for surfing sports) in Kec.Tarimbang, East Sumba
    • Halura Island (the island's exotic, full of mystery, and the island is rich in cultural values, in this island there are many relics of megalithic era), a small island north of East Sumba.
    • Wanokaka Beach (the beach was still awake from the touch of the hands of ignorant and have a beautiful panorama), West Sumba.
    • Megalithic stone tomb (a tomb stone that represents the cultural heritage of megalithic era), there are in all regions in Sumba.
The few things that attract tourists other than those at four places:
    1. Dancing Pasola , ie the typical war dance and exotic Sumba. People dance this dance is just people who really have a mental readiness for the dance this dance as in the case a war with a pointed wooden weapons being thrown at his opponent, so this dance sometimes cause people were injured and even fatalities.
    1. Sumba Weaving , is a typical patterned fabrics Sumba. This weave of high cultural value, to the original fabric (using natural materials ranging from yarn, tool maker, to dye, usually this kind of color is durable and not easily wear off) costs range from tens of millions of rupiah, while not original (factory-made materials used and less durable) cost under Rp.2.000.000, -.
Population consists of people in Sumba Sumba original, Sabu people, people of Flores, Rote people, and others.

2.2. Sumba In Dutch Colonial Period
Netherlands set foot on the island of Sumba, the first time on 10 April 1636 but they think that it is included in the resident based in Kupang, Timor. After Hendrik Engelbrecht become opperhoofd (head prefect) in Timor in 1713, he urged the central government in the Netherlands to occupy the island of Sumba, because the island is rich in sandalwood VOC lucrative but demand is neglected. In 1749 Hendrik Engelbrecht replaced by Daniel van den Burgh, he was the first Dutch officials menginjakan feet in Sumba. He entered into an oral agreement with eight of the king in Sumba that they only sell the produce to the Dutch. All eight king is the King Gela from Melolo, King Djuku Awang from Kapunduk, King Poera from Lewa, King Djama from Petawang, King Mou Sinjatta from Manukaka, King Sanane from Kadahang and King Songar from Hambapraingu.
The Dutch government sent J A Paravicini to conduct research in Sumba. Paravicini in his report stated as follows :
"Sumba is a large island, very lush and letaknnya any strategic partner in the east. Many people which can be used as a good soldier. Skipped by beautiful rivers ...., And valleys filled with forests of timber for building ... And the most important is the result of food abundanc. It is not yet available, but a good black soil that can quickly yield "
But the Netherlands just after the spices on the island of Sumba in particular Sandle wood (sandalwood) sweet and precious. They do not intend to rule until the dissolution of the VOC Sumba, Sumba seeing people who like to fight. It is very beneficial native king for a while, because of their sovereignty is not compromised. News of Sumba since the year 1775 was not heard at all until the British control of Indonesia. It was only in the year 1838, news of Sumba in hearing more about the British ship wreck (all this treasure and crew are traded as a slave, only a few crew members who escaped by boat people who eventually Ende was they who brought news of Sumba) on the island this. When the Dutch returned to power in Indonesia, before the Dutch began to take action against the island of Sumba and colonialism while spreading the Christian Protestant religion (zending) started to happen here just as the regions in Indonesia in general. Zendeling (evangelist) who is sent First NGZV (Gereformeerde Zendings Nederlandsche Vereeniging / Institution Gereformed Church Evangelism Netherlands) is Pdt.Johan Jacob van Alphen in 1881.
As a famous hero is Wanokaka Sumba and his wife they both come from the West Sumba and East Sumba some king of the fight against oppression, among others, King Biditau Netherlands (Kingdom of Lewa), King Umbu Raralunggi (Rindi Kingdom) and King Umbu Mahangengga (Rindi Kingdom) . There were some people who have a small group but very successful because the Dutch invaded the headquarters of the guerrilla is King Umbu Rarameha (Lewa), King Umbu Ndawa Kareuk (Kananggar), and many more heroes who are not so well known.

2.3. The Story about ancestor of Sumba people.
Sumba people refer to themselves as To Humba and called the island of Sumba with Tana Humba designation. The word "humba" according to the old legend of Sumba, derived from the name of a beautiful princess royal children of Sumba. This princess named Rambu Kaita Kamba Humba Humba or familiar signs, he betrothed to a nobleman's son Ende. Her story is as follows:
"Both the bride betrothed and after the customary conversation, it was agreed belis 40 horses. Parties clan men willing and promised to give women belis after the clan arrived in Ende, Flores. According to the appointed day, Rambu Humba entourage left by walking through the old bridge connecting Ende and Sumba (reportedly, erst Ende and Sumba are connected by a long bridge), but after the entourage arrived in Ende Rambu Humba provided only 20 horses. It is considered an insult and eventually Rambu Humba group home in disgust. They, too, after arriving in Sumba, instantly mobilize forces to destroy bridges and Sumba, Ende "7
Sumba people's ancestors were people who came from Megalithic times when we look in terms of cultural and social order. One is the large stone tombs which are relics of megalith.
The story about the ancestors of people of Sumba told orally from generation to generation there are several versions, namely:
  1.  Version Umbu Tay Mina a rato (= customary leaders, the Empu level). This version relates that "Ina-Ama Pakawurung" which means "the Creator" creates a pair of male and female. The pair placed at any place named "Kandau nai-Mulungu Kabundu tana" which means "old forests and hills of Judgement. Older forests and hills of Judgement is not a land of Sumba but a natural part of the "tana-watu manangu" which means "land of stone and salvation / heaven". After the couple gave birth to eight children, male and eight female children, they ruled the Creator finally come down to earth. They came down with the "dreamily ndani pitu-walu ndawa tana" which means "sky-seven-eight layers of the earth". After passing through the pitu-walu ndani dreamily ndawa tana they finally reached the place called "Malaka Tana Bara" which according to experts in anthropology and ethnology is a peninsula of Malaya or Malaysia. They settled in these places and their grandchildren have children in that place. After a few days later, they meet Malaka Tana Bara. They also send the Eagles and Fog to his Maker to tell about the matter and “the Creator” sent soil and stones from heaven with a message that they watered the soil and rocks into the sea paradise. Hearing that message, then they watered with stones and soil into the sea paradise. Maka munculah dari laut berbagai pulau yang besar dan kecil. Then came from the sea many large and small islands. Then menyebarlah all children and grandchildren of "the first human couple" were, among others, spread to a small island in the southeast of the Malacca Tana Bara, Sumba Island.

  1. Umbu Lindi Tana version, the king in District Tabundung. This version relates that the ancient world is still deep. There had been a rock in the middle of the ocean festival. Come "marapu first (Marapu = ancestor). They are Umbu Meha Nguru, Umbu Bijik, Umbu Leming, Umbu Huhu Kahili Kadu, Lai Lai Bongu Baku, and Ndawa Lau. They descend from "Awangu walu ndani" which means "eight layers of heaven" and arrived at the boulder. With the ability they have, they dry up the sea water around a boulder so that they dry the parts expand and become a large island of Sumba island.

  1. "Lii Marapu" Version (saga ancestors / people of Sumba oral literature were hereditary). This version has some similarities with two versions of the above. This version relates that their ancestors came from the sky and Sumba Awangu Walu Ndani past and arrive at the other side of the Malacca Tana Bara (berkemungkinan experts say this is India) and then they wandered from place to Malacca Tana Bara (Peninsular Malaya / Malaysia), Tana Bara (Singapore), hapa-Ndua Riu Riu (Riau), hapa-Ndua spirit of Java (Java), Ruhuku-Mbali (Bali), Ndima (Bima), Makaharu (Makasar), Endi (Ende), Ambarai (Manggarai ), Enda Ndau (Rote Ndao), Haba Njua Rai (Sabu Raijua) and finally tana Humba or Sumba The goal precisely at bay (bay was until now considered sacred by the community Sumba).

Pdt.JJ van Alphen Gerevormerd in a letter to the Church of the Netherlands, menulisakan Sumba people have some characteristics in common with our ancestors were Dutch. Here are partly:
"... They (people of Sumba) tall and big, burly, brown-skinned and sharp-nosed. This makes me remember the images of our ancestors who painted on canvas by Rembrandt and Van der Helst .."
Some experts argue that tribal Sumba has a high probability of coming from South Asia or from Eastern Europe can also, if viewed from the physical, racial and stories mentioned above. Sumba people have physical characteristics possessed by the Indians and if we see people of India itself comes from the mixing of these two nations are Darvida and Arya (coming from Eastern Europe) 9. Rev. Dr. Fred Djara Wellem an expert History of the Church in his book entitled "The Gospel and Marapu" stating that the people of Sumba originated Rear Asia (West Asia and South Asia).
2.4. Sumba Ethnic Religons
Like the tribes in Indonesia, Sumba have confidence in the original or the science of religion Sociology of Religion called the tribe. Religion Sumba tribe known by the name "Marapu". Marapu a belief in ancestral spirits. This is the original religion that makes the whole world Sumba island dubbed as the "land Marapu". Marapu any trust in for the fourth section 10, namely:

    1. Belief in the Supreme Ilah
In Marapu religion, ancestor spirits is not the highest gods but the supreme god called "guest-Pande Pande peku nyura nggara" means nameless. The purpose of the nameless is not to say that the gods were nil, but the point is the Ilah name was sacred and should not be called at will and should only be called the ceremony "Pamangu Ndewa" which means "Divine Banquet" because it can be disastrous. Ilah's name was "Anatala". So that Marapu’s people never call the name of the gods, they would only call the gods with the title-Pande Pande Peku Nyura Nggara Guest. There was no god or gods other than the highest gods. Dalam marapu memiliki kepercayaan akan Ilah yang Esa walaupun mereka juga menghormati roh nenek moyang. In marapu have a belief in a single god, although they also respect the spirits of ancestors.
    1. Belief in the Spirit Ancestors
Marapu ancestral spirits believed to be in a catastrophe. Based on its position ancestral spirits are divided into two Supreme Patriarchs (Marapu Rato), common ancestor (marapu). Meanwhile according to the Ancestral Spirit power region is divided into three namely:
    • Marapu lightning (Ancestral Spirit that controls lightning and thunder), this marapu power to keep livestock and possessions. If there are people who steal the marapu will send a warning three times in the form of lightning and thunder. And when it came to his third warning was ignored, despite the sunny weather will be snatched up lightning towards the thief to the thief charred. These incidents often occur repeatedly in the region of Sumba. But after Sumba zending into the cult of the lightning marapu reduced.
    • Marapu tana (ancestral spirit who controls the land and crops). Marapu is believed to give fertility to the soil and the abundance of crops. Before harvest Marapu society must give a gift to this marapu. And after the harvest, the harvest should not be eaten before thanking marapu tana and on the supreme god. If this provision is violated then there will be famine. In folklore "Ndelo and Kyase", narrated that Marapu tana can provide seed for people who are hard to get a child or even barren.
    • Marapu wai (ancestral spirit of the waters and everything in it). Marapu This Marapu trusted authority in providing abundant seafood. How to worship on this marapu is not clearly known.

    1. Trust in Spirit Smoother
Marapu religious spirit in there four types, namely:
    • Maramba tana (land spirits), it has similarities with the Marapu tana but the difference is maramba tana only mastered a particular place only. And if you want to remove this spirit we need to hold religious ceremonies. Spirit is included in good spirits group.
    • Yora pangga (Spirit Companions walk), this spirit when given a gift he will always maintain and will bring the success of every trip.
    • Yora patuna (Spirit of friends walked into the supernatural), the spirit is guiding someone who wants to acquire supernatural power, wealth, etc. to the faerie. This spirit while protecting from four ghosts (Patau wai / Ghost sea, patau wangga / ghost banyan, patau omang / ghost forest, and patau tana / ghost land) bullies on the way supernatural or ordinary travel . Wandi (evil spirit / perasuk), this spirit is to differentiate into third.
a. Wandi mamarungu (Spirit suanggi / witch); is the spirit that can make a person suanggi / magician who can conjure another person to death. If you know someone known to have spirits suanggi and it shall be expelled, persecuted, and killed.
b. Wandi kambaliku (trickster spirit); spirit causes people to become like cheating.
c. Wandi Kambu (stomach spirit); if this spirit into a person's stomach, they become greedy and even though he had eaten so much he would not be satiated.
    1. Trust in the power of Sakti.
Sumba people have belief in supernatural forces that can be owned by someone with a learning on the person / creature who already have these supernatural powers. People who have supernatural powers such highly respected and revered and even feared. Strength is also believed to have magical powers in animals, plants and ancestral relics or Marapu.

2.5. Ethnic Literary and Artistic Works Sumba
    1. Artwork
The famous works of art from the island of Sumba, mostly from the megalithic era except fabrics. Mamoli, jewelry is a woman's ear and can also be hung on a gold Muti and the young.
      • Muti, who Threaded necklace is from a series of small seeds made of wood or certain beans. Seeds are used to mamoli derived from wood or hard seeds and durable. To seed materials made from large seeds, large seeds and halusakan to round, smooth, and small.
      • Statues and monuments; statues and monuments are made usually made from stone taken from the top of the mountain (the selected stone is hard but easy on the form) which then carve.
      • Megalithic tomb, the tomb is made of a large mountain stone and has a tremendous weight. Appointment of this stone has a special procedure, and which became the main provision is that if people die it is the nobility in the stone interesting person who is very much needed and most importantly must have noble men who danced in the rock prior to withdrawal. Because if not then despite the thousands of people who pull the stone will not move even an inch.
      • Pasola dance, this is an exotic dance that requires mental readiness. Because this dance dance like a real war. This dance so often cause injuries and even people.
      • Fabrics, fabrics of Sumba have their own uniqueness, which is most typical of these fabrics are bright colors blended composition of dark complexion and his motives are complicated.
2.      Literature.
The literature on Sumba nothing in written form. All works are derived orally by generations of ancestors to successors to the present. Following oral literature in Sumba:
      • Li'I marapu (saga ancestor), this is the literature of the famous and oldest Sumba. Literature is about the journey of our ancestors until he came in Sumba, the division of its ancestral territory, and biographies of the ancestors.
      • Lawiti Lawiti humba (proverbs and poetry Sumba pattern), this literature contains expressions and proverbs in the language of Sumba. This oral literature in 1987, printed in a book of the same have been prepared by DR (HC). Umbu Hina Capita.
      • . Folklore, literature, folklore is the same as the usual. Some of the famous folktale of Sumba, among others Ndelo and Kyase, Umbu Ndelu A Kataru, Padua lost Rambu Omang, Pareji Sahatku, Discovery Rice, Mori-Sape Koda Ana Ana Rato, Rambu Humba, and others.
2.6. Horse Sandalwood and Sandalwood Island Memories.
Sumba is in addition known as the land Marapu (Marapu Island). He is also known as the Island Sandlewood / Sandalwood Island (Sandlewood Island) because the memories of the past. Before Netherlands coming to Sumba, Sumba is a sandalwood forest. It is written in the notes to the cruise ship Mary Screensavers shipwrecked on the island of Sumba. In the note said that they were shipwrecked on the island of Sandalwood Forest. Sumba is fertile soil produces a menghutan and fragrant sandalwood. Sumba is the island at that time which will be fragrant sandalwood. Sumba became the center of sandalwood exports to Bima and Batavia are then sent to the Netherlands. However, after the Dutch began to occupy the Dutch began to monopolize Sumba sandalwood forest on Sumba, this makes the island Sandlewood living memory. A district government now Sumba Island are trying sandalwood cultivation.
Although the living memories Sandlewood Island, Sumba still have Sandlewood Horse (Sandlewood horses) that is 'identity' Sumba since time immemorial. Sandle Horse / horses sandalwood / horse Sumba have their own uniqueness. Although the horse was small but sandle sandle horse is a horse of the most powerful and energetic in the world. He has incredible speed. Until now there has been no native or half-breed horses in the world that can match the horse Sandle. Horse sandle also good at dancing. Horse sandle is the result of five types of horses crossing the original horse Sumba, Australian horse, horse UK, Pakistan horses, and Arabian horses. As a famous Indonesian poet named Taufik Ismail, had been made a poem entitled "Give Me Sumba" 12 is depicted Sumba as the 'horse world'. This poem was written when Taufik Ismail was in Uzbekistan, Russia.
3.1. Conclution
Dari semua pembahasan di atas(Pada bab 1 dan 2) dapat kita simpulkan bahwa suku Sumba adalah suku yang memiliki sejarah yang panjang, kaya akan budaya, seni, dan sastra. From all the discussion above (in chapter 1 and 2) we can deduce that the tribe is a tribe that Sumba has a long history, rich culture, art, and literature. Mereka(orang Sumba) mempercayai nenek moyang mereka datang dari tempat yang disebut dengan delapan lapis langit dan bumi adalah lapisan kesembilan. They (people of Sumba) believe their ancestors came from a place called the eight layers of heaven and earth is the ninth layer. Sebenarnya nenek orang Sumba adalah orang yang datang dari Asia Selatan (kemungkinan besar India). Sumba is actually someone's grandmother who came from South Asia (most likely India). Sumba juga memiliki agama asli yang disebut Marapu yang percaya akan Ilah yang Tunggal dan menghormati roh nenek moyang. Sumba also has a native religion called Ilah Marapu who believe in the One and to respect the spirit of the ancestors. Sumba memiliki kebudayaan megalitik yang kuat dan tertanam hingga sekarang. Sumba has a strong megalithic culture and embedded until now. Sumba masa lalu memiliki identitas Sandlewood Island, kenangan akan hutan cendana yang menyebarkan harumnya Sumba ke seluruh pelosok dunia. Past Sumba Island Sandlewood identity, memories will spread the scent of sandalwood forests of Sumba to all corners of the world. Sumba juga terkenal dengan Kuda sandlewoodnya yang energik dan merupakan identitas kedua Sumba yang bertahan sampai sekarang ini. Sumba is also famous for its Horse sandlewoodnya an energetic and a second identity of Sumba, which lasted until today.
3.2. Suggetion
Perhaps for the few people think of Sumba as a speck of atolls in the middle of the deep, but it contains a speck of atolls in the meaning and value of high culture is like "a bar of gold that are buried in the middle of thousands of bars of silver", there is a transfer of securities more valuable and meaningful. So respect the culture of our country and do not underestimate the culture of the tribe because "a speck of the atoll" It is the most valuable in the midst of something valuable. Save a wealth of geographical and anthropological.
Appendix 1

Give Me Sumba"

In Uzbekistan ...
There are open fields and dusty.
Strange, I remember on Umbu.
Miss A on Sumba, are longing open plains.
Where the sun arcing over there.
Sumba is a nostalgic longing to a virgin breeders.
When the sweat and effort without the price calculated.

Grass land, grass and straw hat ... former grass.
bells, horses neigh and cries the shepherd.
Stand on the coast, the sun will rise from the sea ...
And the hot wind acidity dikipas from there.

Give me a piece of grilled meat, buffalo bellow, and the cows at night.
Give me sepucuk guitar, Bossa Nova, and three horses.
Give me a tropical weather, hundreds of dry rainless days.
Give me the land of no fences, no terkata area, called Sumba.

Miss A on Sumba, are longing thousand horses, which fell at the feet buki mengemuruh distant hills.
While the sky like the hand woven, dark brown.
And a ball of fire, crimson shade membenab diufuk

. My longing is a longing on Sumba open plains.
Where the sun like a ball of fire, dry weather and cattle lowing.
Sumba is the nostalgic melancholy of a thousand horses ....
Roaring down at the foot of the distant hills.

By: Taufik Ismail


A.List of Books
  1. Beding, Michael, 2003, Sandle Ringkiknya Fragrance of Sandalwood, Local Government East Sumba, East Sumba.
  2. Beding, Michael, 2002, Mosaics of West Sumba, Local Government of West Sumba, West Sumba
  3. Cremes, Agus, Drs, 1997, Between Natural And Myths, Introduction to Scruktural Anthropologhy of Levi-Straus, Nusa Indah.
  4. End, Th van den, DR, 1996, Protestant History Sources GKS, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta.
  5. End, Th van den, 1989, Ragi Carita, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta.
  6. Hanif, AL, 2001, A Complete Dictionary of Indonesian Language, ALUMNI, Surabaya.
  7. Hina Capita, Umbu, DR, 1976, Sumba Within Reach Zaman, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta.
  8. Hina Capita, Umbu, DR, 1987, my past Lawiti Humba-Pattern Proverb Sumba, South Tenri Cultural Research Institute, Japan
  9. Hina Capita, Umbu, Dr, Doctor Honoris Causa degree dissertation-Language Sumba As an introduction to the Gospel, Vrije University, Netherlands.
  10. Peku, Jawang Umbu, 1987, Mosaic Tourism NTT, NTT Tourism Office, Kupang.
  11. Composer, Tim, 1991, General Encyclopedia, Publisher Canisius, Jogjakarta.
  12. Wellem, FD, DR, Rev, 2004, Gospel And Marapu, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta.
B.List of Media Period (Electronic and print)
  1. "Tracks Adventurers", TRANS 7 © 2006
  2. "Cross Flobamora", TVRI © 2003 NTT
  3. Yudha News Newspapers Collection, 1973-1980, East Regional Library
  4. Pos Kupang Newspapers Collection, 1976-2009, East Regional Library
  5. Updates Voice Newspaper Collection, 1975-2000, East Regional Library

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